Fluturele mare al plopului – Limenitis populi

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Fluturele mare al plopului – Limenitis populi (în maghiară: nagy nyárfalepke), aparținând familiei Nymphalidae, este unul dintre cei mai mari fluturi de zi ai Eurasiei: femelele ajung la 82-85 mm anvergură a aripilor, masculii sunt mai mici (anvergura de 66-77 mm). Detaliile coloristice privite de aproape sunt interesante. Din vedere dorsală, aripile masculului sunt brun-închis-negricioase și au tente albăstrui-cenușii cu pete albicioase – precum și irizații verzui; femelele au desene albe mai extinse pe fața dorsală a aripilor posterioare. Partea ventrală a aripilor este cafeniu-portocalie cu pete albe.

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Arealul ei palearctic acoperă mare parte din Europa (din Danemarca în Franța și nordul Italiei, inclusiv România, Ungaria șamd) și Asia (din Rusia în Mongolia… până în Japonia și China), dar peste tot este o specie relativ rară, cu prezență insulară, restrânsă evident la habitatele favorabile speciei; din acest vast areal au fost descrise 11 subspecii. Limenitis populi bucovinensis Hormuzaki, 1897, descris de pe la noi, este considerat de unii autori ca fiind specie separată: Limenitis bucovinensis Hormuzaki… dar analizele recente îl consideră taxon infrasubspecific.

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Fluturele mare al plopului preferă peisajul pădurilor de fag cu carpen, mai cu seamă fiind prezent prin văi răcoroase, unde trăiesc și plopi, precum și zone cu plopi de pe lângă râuri. Ouăle verzui sunt depuse pe fața superioară a frunzelor de plop (mai ales Populus tremula și Populus nigra); larvele ies din ou după 7 zile și se hrănesc în acești arbori. La sfârșitul verii, larvele își creează coconi în care își petrec iarna, după care ies să continue să se hrănească în următorul sezon de vegetație. Adulții zboară în lunile iunie și iulie. Masculii apar la început, iar către finalul perioadei de zbor persistă numai femelele. Zborul masculilor este foarte rapid, cel al femelelor este mai lent. Femelele sunt mai greu de observat, deoarece în general își duc existența în zona înaltă a coronamentului și rar coboară la nivelul solului. Sunt atrași de mirosul hoiturilor sau dejecțiilor, dar extrag substanțe necesare existenței și din solul umed sau scurgeri din arbori: interesant este că nu vizitează flori… Eugen Niculescu, în cartea Fauna Republicii Populare Române, Familia Nymphalidae, Ed. Academiei RPR, București 1965, descrie detaliat această specie, la pg. 113-118. La pg. 116, scrie: “Larva apare în august și crește lent; când se pregătește de hibernare, e încă foarte mică. Atunci răsucește o frunză formând un tub (…). Verity afirmă că a văzut cum uneori larva își țese un cilindru de mătase la bifurcarea a două rămurele, care servește ca adăpost de iernare și se numește hibernaculum. Primăvara încep activitatea în luna mai-iunie. Se hrănește cu frunze de Populus tremula, P. nigra, P. alba, rozând marginile și începând de la vârf. O frunză îi servește ca loc de odihnă și roade frunzele vecine așezându-se pe nervura centrală a frunzei (…) Se crisalidează pe fața superioară a frunzei, unde crisalida rămâne atașată. Stadiul de crisalidă durează 10-14 zile. Adultul zboară între 15 iunie și 15 iulie, perioada de zbor a unui individ fiind de circa 20 de zile. (…) Stă în desișul frunzelor în partea superioară a coroanei arborilor, așezându-se pe frunze cu aripile desfăcute. Masculii coboară pe sol între orele 9 și 11 iar femelele după ora 16. Caută dejecțiunile animalelor și sudoarea cailor.” Alte descrieri arată că femelele coboară la sol mai ales dimineața… și există contrazicerea descrierii morfologiei oului din cartea lui Niculescu (în privința costulelor longitudinale), precum și a perioadei necesare pentru ieșirea larvei din ou (7 sau 14 zile)… detalii. În cartea lui Dr. Helgard Reichholf-Riehm, Schmetterlinge, Mosaik Verlag GmbH, München, traducerea maghiară Lepkék, Magyar Könyvklub, 1996, la pg. 42 se arată că la sfârșitul verii larvele intră în diapauză în grupuri mici, retrase în pânze de mătase poziționate la vârful crengilor de plop; împuparea se realizează pe fața inferioară a frunzelor.

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În privința răspândirii de pe la noi, Eugen Niculescu, în cartea Fauna Republicii Populare Române, Familia Nymphalidae, la pg. 118 scrie: “În RPR această specie relativ rară, zboară în zona fagului și a bradului și nu coboară niciodată la câmpie. (acest “niciodată” este contrazis chiar pe aceeași pagină, unde se menționează: În 1916 însă fluturele a fost capturat la Comana – Reg. București, exemplarul găsindu-se în colecția Ostrogovich.). În altitudine se ridică până la 1800 m pe Retezat după Dioszeghy (1929), König (1959) semnalând fluturele în aceeași regiune până la 2100 m.” Pe baza bibliografiei și a observațiilor personale, Niculescu mai amintește prezența speciei la Dumbrava Sibiului, Neamț, Mehadia, Sinaia, Herculane, Banat, Munții Apuseni, Făgăraș etc. Desigur, de atunci mai sunt multe alte date care completează această imagine generală.

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Fluturele mare al plopului este o specie care a devenit rară sau a dispărut din multe locuri, ca efect al practicilor silviculturale care distrug diversitatea biologică.

PS. Aceste imagini au fost realizate în iunie 2013, în Maramureșul Istoric.

© dr. Peter Lengyel

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12 răspunsuri la Fluturele mare al plopului – Limenitis populi

  1. Cosmin Manci via FB spune:

    Din ce stiu eu este doar la munte si exclusiv pe Populus tremula. Si de asemenea nu este o specie chiar atat de rara cum se crede.

  2. Laura Palanga via FB spune:

    cat de frumooos este!

  3. Mihai spune:

    Interesant.
    Foarte reusite fotografiile!

  4. peterlengyel spune:

    Populations of grassland butterflies decline almost 50 % over two decades
    http://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/populations-of-grassland-butterflies-decline

  5. Adriana spune:

    Buna ziua,

    am tot cautat pe net poate poate gasesc informatii despre un fluture gasit in curte. Ce m-a facut sa caut aceste informatii? are niste dimensiuni destul de mari (cca 8-10 cm) si in momentul in care se simte amenintat scoate niste sunete foarte ciudate (ca niste chitaituri)

    • Cristian Sitaru spune:

      Buna ziua
      Este vorba despre Fluturele cap de mort – Acherontia atropos.
      Face parte din Familia Sphingidae si este o specie migratoare.

      • DM Ruşti spune:

        „Cap-de-mort” pare o simplă traducere, într-o carte veche de peste un secol (”
        Insectele în limba credințele, si obiceiurile Românilor” de Simion Florian Marian https://openlibrary.org/books/OL6955410M/Insectele_i%CC%82n_limba) apare numele românesc tradiţional – „strigă” f.potrivit din mai multe motive: (1) e singurl fluture autohton care „strigă”; (2) strigă este şi termenul pt.o categorie de vrăjitoare, iar de respectivul fluture sunt legate o serie întreagă de credinţe care-l plasează în zona respectivă

        Nu ştiu totuşi care este legătura (dacă există vreuna), între acest fluture şi pasărea răpitoare de noapte numită tot strigă (Tyto alba).

  6. peterlengyel spune:

    Imi place stilul de abordare a acestui om… Nu e prea usor sa poti scrie interesant despre niste muste… si sa faci constatari valide pentru intelegerea mai buna a fenomenelor biologice si ecologice mai ample.

    Two flies, one leaf: new leafminers from Costa Rica

    „Feeding on plants opens a huge number of opportunities for insects to diversify. There are new food sources to exploit, new evolutionary ways of dealing with the complex mix of chemical compounds that plants use to defend themselves, and new ways to divide up an individual host plant in ways that reduce competition.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2014/02/09/two-flies-one-leaf-new-leafminers-from-costa-rica/

    Bohemian Rhapsody, and the power of surprise

    „I’ve had a few surprises in research in the past couple of years. Surprises about just how many different kinds of flies live in otherwise barren-looking habitats. Surprises about how communities of insects assemble themselves in newly colonized places. (…) These were good surprises. I liked them. They made me happy. Some of them launched me off into explorations of new questions. And I like exploring. Sometimes, the great joy of science happens when things work out exactly as we predicted. But sometimes, the great joy of science happens when we are completely surprised.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/08/03/bohemian-rhapsody-and-the-power-of-surprise/

    Despre importanta intrebarilor care sa merite sa primeasca raspunsuri
    It’s about the questions

    “In the world of science, finding the answers is sometimes easier than coming up with the questions. (…) finding the question and figuring out how to answer it. That’s science. (…) to talk about questions. (…) about why some flies are over on the willows and others in the sedges, even though they eat neither; about why those little shiny flies on the rotting mushrooms move their wings in that way, and are they all males?; about why taxonomy and ecology still often persist in acting like they’re completely unrelated fields; about how many species and how many specimens we might need for a good, reliable molecular phylogeny. Finding answers is rewarding and satisfying, but who knows — maybe it’s also secondary. Being a good scientist isn’t just about finding the “right” answers; it’s about asking good questions.”

    Iar la comentariile de dupa articol apar niste idei interesante: Ted C. MacRae “Agree with you about stats. One thing I struggle with constantly is battling with my colleagues over whether statistically significant difference is a biologically relevant difference. People put so much blind faith in that damned asterisk – I wish they’d get better at critically examining whether it actually means anything.” Meenakshi Bharti “we were not allowed to interrupt a teacher in between his or her lecture and to ask a question was like insulting a teacher in public…For this reason, today I find lot of unenthusiastic students…cramming their answers to get good marks in exam. Somewhere, the teachers themselves have killed the passion of their students.” terry wheeler “I think you are absolutely right about the ability of certain teachers to crush the passion in students. When I look back to my own experience as a student, or to my more recent experiences team-teaching with colleagues, it’s clear that the professors who really inspire and excite students are those who are not afraid to admit that there are so many things that We Don’t Know. THOSE are the teachers who inspire students to think “maybe I could be the one to find out the answer!”. THOSE are the teachers who really do help shape the next generation of great researchers or great thinkers.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/07/28/its-about-the-questions/

    The samples of autumn

    „Yes, fieldwork is hard work. But it’s also a way to connect to the natural history of a place. And that connection helps me link these rows of little flies to the bigger context of climate and rock and soil and plants and animals that make a place special.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/09/09/the-samples-of-autumn/

    Despre cat de multe stim in privinta diversitatii de specii…

    Out of Africa: more strange flies

    “Our three new species not only more than double the number of species known from the continent (…) Because specimens of all three of our new species were collected in one place, on the same dates, in one single Malaise trap. Imagine how many more species might be out there in other places, waiting to be collected in other traps, by other keen collectors.”

    “So the obvious question is: Why? What sort of evolutionary pressures could lead to this weird modification in antennae in these two species of a very large family? And why only one sex? And why the male in one species and the female in the other? The answer, as with many other questions about insect evolution, is: We don’t know. Many insect species are described only from preserved museum specimens; they have never been observed alive. This means that we often know little or nothing about how they actually live their lives, or use their sometimes strangely modified body parts.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/08/29/out-of-africa-more-strange-flies/

    Sa vezi ce fain este si prin USA & Canada:

    Into Fall: field and lab, hello and good-bye

    “I’m also looking forward to getting back into the classroom and waxing poetic about the awesomeness of insects to a new batch of students. (…) government, within weeks of being elected in 2012, slashed 250 million dollars of funding to Quebec universities. This deplorable attack on the educational and intellectual life of the province left universities scrambling to make draconian budget cuts across the board. (…) This leaves an enormous hole in our teaching, research, collection development and outreach capabilities and we are not yet sure what the long-term outlook is. We are hopeful that a future provincial government will restore university funding to an appropriate level and we can begin to emerge from the intellectual darkness of the current regime.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/09/02/into-fall-field-and-lab-hello-and-good-bye/

    O descriere destul de interesanta a atmosferei iesirilor de teren in campanii de colectare…
    Twin Lakes: random thoughts on Yukon fieldwork

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/07/25/twin-lakes-random-thoughts-on-yukon-fieldwork/

    Yukon Ho! The quest for northern flies continues

    “(…) Yukon, one of my favorite parts of Canada and a fantastic place to do entomological fieldwork. (…) Sabrina identified all of our NBP piophilid flies, discovering a couple of new species in the process, which she’s now describing. (…) They’re looking at flies, seeing where they live, what they do. (…) Are these things necessary for an M.Sc. project? Absolutely not. We have lots of specimens already and they could do their projects without ever leaving the lab. But the whole experience, and the depth of their understanding, would be greatly diminished by not getting out here, feeding the mosquitoes, thrashing through the willows, seeing how different families of flies move around inside the net, reading the landscape. It connects them to their projects and their study organisms through the living, changing, complicated world.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/07/22/yukon-ho-the-quest-for-northern-flies-continues/

    Entomology on the road: thoughts on three trips

    Despre colectii muzeale, studierea lor, interactiune directa…

    “I travelled to Washington DC (…) the United States National Museum of Natural History (AKA “the USNM” AKA “the Smithsonian”) (…) Every insect collection has certain shared qualities, but each also has its own unique history, strengths and specimens. We, for example, have a lot of material that the USNM does not have, despite our much smaller collection, but they have one of the finest fly collections in the world (…) As much as we all talk about the digitization of museum collections, and on-line accessibility of collections, and the awesome power of social media and the internet, sometimes you simply have to travel to a place, walk in the door and open the cabinets. Specimens need to be taken out of drawers, flipped over, turned around, scrutinized under the microscope, ferreted out in unexpected places. You can’t easily do that on-line (yet). Of course, the other great advantage of going on an actual, physical visit, is the opportunity to interact with colleagues. And by “interact” I mean shake hands, say hello, catch up on projects and lives, chat, walk up and down the rows of cabinets with them and look at things.”

    Si despre colectare de exemplare pentru a extrage ADN pentru studii de genetica populationala…

    “(…) specimens of some key species for her project on the population genetics of flies in northern Canadian grasslands. Although our ability to extract and amplify DNA from dried specimens has made great strides in recent years, sometimes it’s highly desirable to have freshly collected material, especially for some of the more finicky genes. In addition, if you’re going to unravel the genetic diversity and history of a species, you need to extract DNA from a reasonable number of specimens per location in order to understand the amount of genetic variation in the group.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/07/19/entomology-on-the-road-thoughts-on-three-trips/

    “Mastering” northern flies: another student crosses the finish line

    “our work on the flies from the Northern Biodiversity Program (…) more than a hundred thousand specimens into the project. (…) Many scathophagids are predators, others are scavengers and many feed on live plants. They are also interesting (…) because they are one of the few families of flies (and indeed one of the few families of insects) that becomes more diverse as you move north into the arctic.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/06/08/mastering-northern-flies-another-student-crosses-the-finish-line/
    Breaking diapause

    “In addition to teaching my annual Evolution and Phylogeny course to a big class of 95 students, there were a few manuscripts being wrapped up (…) our Desert Ecology field course (…) chasing flies this year from the Yukon tundra to Quebec peatlands”

    Plus ca de aici se deschide o alta lume noua: desert ecology blog http://desertecology.wordpress.com/

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/06/03/breaking-diapause/

    A sense of place

    “A “sense of place” is something you only gain by sitting on a rock for a while watching life interact with wind and sand, watching cactus wrens bring grubs and tiny lizards back to their nestlings, seeing the scorpions glow in the night under our black lights, learning the smell and sounds of the place. (…) And in that wandering, we started seeing changes in time, not just changes in space. Something bigger has happened too. We started making connections out to other places, other times. (…) This is one of the great strengths of learning in the field. Of touching the rock and smelling the plants and tracking the lizards. Of wandering and wondering. This is the best way there is to forge links to the other places we’ve seen, and to the other times we’ve been out in the big world.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/05/01/a-sense-of-place/

    Despre inventariere de specii & baze de date:

    Count all the things: towards a Biota of Canada

    “The great majority of our species are the small, diverse, similar-looking, hard to collect, hard to identify, mostly unnamed majority. That includes arthropods. (…) The idea of a biological inventory of Canada is older than the country of Canada itself. (…) There are a lot of differences between the way we collect, package and share biodiversity information now compared to 1979. This work is no longer done only by specialists, and the products are used by a wide range of individuals and agencies. The digital revolution means that The Book is no longer the only method of presenting all this information.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/03/09/count-all-the-things-towards-a-biota-of-canada/

    Many ways forward: towards a Biota of Canada

    “we can’t make a catalog of all Canadian species yet, and we won’t be able to for a long time. (…) does not mean we shouldn’t just start in and DO the thing. (…) a logical first step is to compile the information we already have (…) We now have internationally accepted standards (the Darwin Core) and an organization (the Global Biodiversity Information Facility) to help standardize, compile and connect databases. (…) great progress on building pages for individual species. Check out the fantastic virtual museum at the E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum for a great start on species pages for Canadian insects. These pages are user-friendly portals to taxonomic, ecological, geographic and other information about species. We simply need more of them. This is one of the primary goals of the Encyclopedia of Life.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/03/23/many-ways-forward-towards-a-biota-of-canada/

    Mustele si performanta in abordarea lor… interesanta
    A scrie interesant despre situatia unor muste… este ceva performanta in abordarea acestui om…

    Summarizing your research, with a catch

    “It’s important for scientists to be able to explain what we do to a broad audience, not just other scientists. (…) As it turns out, it’s pretty hard.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/02/25/summarizing-your-research-with-a-catch/

    Natural history known, unknown, and assumed: a fly tale

    “So, if I describe a new species that fits into a genus in which all other known species are predators of snails, for example, it’s a good bet that my new species probably eats snails. But that doesn’t mean we’re always right. Most carabid beetles are predators. But not all. Most spiders are predators. But not all. I think a lot about the limits of predictability, and the pitfalls of predicting incorrectly, in the context of the insects I know best — the fly family Chloropidae (also known as frit flies, grass flies, or eye gnats). Predictions about the natural history of poorly known species of chloropids are difficult for three reasons: 1) we only know the habits of a very small fraction of the described species; 2) many genera of chloropids are probably not monophyletic, or “natural groups”. In other words, they may include a set of species that are not each other’s closest relatives and thus don’t reflect shared history; and 3) chloropids are one of the most ecologically diverse families of insects on the planet. (…) For the vast majority of species, and even genera, we simply do not know their natural history. (…) We need more basic observations on what these flies actually do. (…) We often tend to think about research projects in terms of posing big questions and testing hypotheses or predictions and accumulating lots of data. But given how little we know about the natural history of many arthropods, we can also make significant advances in knowledge armed with a notebook, some empty pill bottles and a sunny afternoon.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/01/26/natural-history-known-unknown-and-assumed-a-fly-tale/

    Aproape fiecare postare pe blogul acela este o scriere interesanta… se vede capacitatea celui care a realizat acele postari…

    Taxonomy with or without natural history?

    “And I certainly don’t know what it eats, or where its larvae develop, or its preferred microhabitat, or its role in food webs. We may never know that. (…) If this fly has a name, and is placed in a classification, then at least we know that its natural history is a “known unknown” (…) In most cases we don’t see the specimens until they’re already dead and preserved. Sometimes the taxonomic expert who recognizes the species wasn’t even in the field where the material was collected. (…) Much has been written about the “taxonomic impediment” — the realization that there are not enough active taxonomists, and not enough resources, to describe earth’s biodiversity anywhere near soon enough, at the rate we’re going. Just here in the cabinets in my lab I have at least 200 undescribed species of small flies that I already know are new species. (…) I suppose this is the cost of specializing on a group of small, cryptic, poorly-known flies, whose ecological diversity is so high that it’s hard to even predict the habits of unknown species — natural history data is sometimes a luxury. (…) Granted, it’s not an easy battle and it’s going to be a long one and I think we have to be content with little gains of a few inches here and there rather than total victory. (…) I’ve contributed taxonomic expertise to put names on a few species of flies for which other contributors (mostly non-scientists, and not taxonomists) have provided fantastic natural history data. And I know that at least a couple of those species are as yet undescribed. The more collaborations we have like these, the better.”

    La fel de interesante sunt si comentariile, in care se arata: “the roadblocks to publishing basic observational data (and the lack of credit for doing so). (…) Sure, some of those little half-page notes may not be rigorous or replicated, but as basic information about species they are gold. (…) Getting natural history data back into the literature, and back into respectability, will be a challenge, certainly. Maybe it will take a couple of editorial boards who are not preoccupied with Impact, along with some reviewers who understand that basic empirical observations can have great added value. The alternative is that thousands of unpublished observations and data points will remain locked away in the heads and field notebooks of good field people. And that would be a shame.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2013/01/10/taxonomy-with-or-without-natural-history/

    “I tried to keep this blog active when I could. Some posts on the importance of natural history clearly struck a chord with readers, and were responsible for most of the visits to the blog this year. There is obviously a big and active community of people out there — professionals and amateurs, students and senior researchers, scientists and non-scientists — who “get it” when we talk about the critical importance of natural history. I have to confess, though, that I sometimes feel like I’m preaching to the choir. I hope we can find a way to get our message through the sometimes thick skulls of university administrators, hiring committees and granting committees.”

    http://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2014/01/01/a-year-of-change-2013-in-review/

    • George Romanca via Conservarea Biodiversitatii spune:

      Da! tipul e mare, i-am citit toate postarile; un taxonomist care si-a pus mereu intrebari si ca sa incerce sa raspunda la ele a ajuns sa faca filogenie, genetica, etologie etc. lasand la o parte activitatea didactica si muzeistica; om de teren, fin observatorsi un talentat comunicator (este o placere sa-i citesti postarile) in concluzie un biolog mare cu adevarat.

      Cat despre audienta larga… si el ridica problema (la care m-am referit si eu cu ceva timp in urma) ca oamenii de stinta nu stiu (nu sunt capabili) sa explice oamenilor de rand intr-un limbaj adecvat ce fac ei si importanta a ceea ce fac.

      pe de alta parte, cred ca chestia depinde in mare masura si de nivelul educational al publicului. Pune-te in postura de a explica la noi unei audiente oarecare dintr-un oras, ca sa nu zic din sate, cele trei aspecte mentionate in exemplul postat de tine! Poti sa -ti imaginezi reactia publicului larg? La modul in care se pun problemele in societatea romana actuala, la nivelul educational si de interes al ei…. mie mi se face pielea gaina gandindu-ma la o atare
      postura.

      GR

      • Asociatia ARIN via Conservarea Biodiversitatii spune:

        Pai, „publicul” nici nu VREA sa auda „chestii”, in detaliu!

        NU exista doar „biologia” pe lume! CE ar insemna ca „publicul” sa stie EXACT detalii din TOATE domeniile? Ar lua-o razna, pur si simplu!!

        „Specialistii” ar trebui sa-si imagineze ca incearca sa atraga un copil spre stiinta lor (un copil care nu aude povesti interesante se plictiseste imediat si nu te mai urmareste!). Cand or sa fie capabili sa ii POVESTEASCA nepotului (eventual care are si sindrom ADHD) ce-si-cum cu o „musca” (sau orice altceva) FARA sa i-o arate, atunci vor fi gasit limbajul potrivit😉

        Codruta

  7. Doru Ruşti via Conservarea Biodiversitatii spune:

    Cel mai bine cunoscut grup de nevertebrate sunt fluturii (ma refer la cei de zi, cu maruntele specii nocturne e alta poveste) si daca faci ceva „sapaturi” in literatura e socant sa constati ca in multe cazuri datele de biologie (plantele gazda ale omizilor, ciclul de viata samd) vehiculate in ghidurile uzuale provin din cercetari mai vechi de un secol! (iar trebuie sa fac observatia ca exista cercetari recente in anumite zone cum ar fi Germania sau Marea Britanie, sau pentru anumite specii cu statut de ocrotire). In arii intinse (inclusiv RO) nu se stie mai nimic despre majoritatea speciilor si ar fi atat de usor sa observi animalele vii, in natura sau intr-un laborator improvizat. Cum am putea convinge educatorii sa dea elevilor si studentilor teme de studiu mai practice, nu doar exclusiv teoretice? (iarasi probabil ca intrebarea asta ar trebui formulata in alta parte, sau *si* in alta parte, nu doar pe lista asta). Probabil ca ar trebui (re-)educati si educatorii …

    Revenind la fluturi, e straniu sa observi ca desi metamorfoza albilitei-verzei a fost descrisa deja de catre Aristotel, oameni educati nu fac legatura conceptuala dintre fluturii „simaptici” si omizile „gretoase”. Cum sa promovezi ocrotirea biodiversitatii cand majoritatea grupelor de vietuitoare sunt privite cu indiferenta, daca nu cu ostilitate fatisa (reptilele ar fi aici cap de afis)?

    dmr

  8. peterlengyel spune:

    cateva cuvinte interesante despre munca necesara pentru a ajunge la descrierea de noi specii, la cartarea arealului lor de raspandire samd…

    How many people does it take to describe a new species?

    „So yes, two of us wrote that paper and described that new species, but only after many years work by grant writers, supervisors, postdocs, grad students, undergrad students, field assistants, guides, bear monitors, bush pilots, northern partners, collectors and curators came together across the decades and across institutions to drop those weird little flies on our desks. When you think about it, even “solitary science” still takes a village.”

    https://lymanmuseum.wordpress.com/2015/03/01/how-many-people-does-it-take-to-describe-a-new-species/

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